ECONOMIC CLASS IMMIGRATION
With an ageing population and declining birth rate, immigration plays an important role in ensuring that Canada’s population and labour force continue to grow. Foreign nationals may be selected as members of the economic class based on their ability to become economically established in Canada, meet labour market needs, and contribute to Canada's economic growth. The economic class is comprised of more than 60 federal and provincial programs under federal skilled, caregivers, federal business, provincial nominee, Atlantic Immigration Pilot, Quebec skilled workers and Quebec business immigrants. In 2019, between 174,000 and 209,500 permanent resident admissions are expected under the Economic Class. ¹
Contact us to consult a licensed immigration consultant about immigrating to Canada under the economic class.
FAMILY CLASS IMMIGRATION
Canadian citizens and permanent residents can sponsor certain foreign nationals who are family members, to be reunited with them in Canada and become permanent residents. Persons who may be sponsored include spouses, common-law partners, children, parents, grandparents and other prescribed family members. In 2019, between 83,000 and 98,000 foreign nationals are expected to be reunited in Canada with their Canadian citizen or permanent resident family member. ²
Contact us to consult a licensed immigration consultant about sponsoring a member of the family class.
REFUGEE PROTECTION PROGRAMS
Canada’s refugee programs offer a safe haven to eligible persons who have fled their countries because of a well-founded fear of persecution and are unable to return home because of that fear. Eligible persons include those who meet the definition of a Convention refugee and are outside Canada, as well as foreign nationals who are in Canada seeking asylum because they are in danger of facing individualized risk of death, torture, or cruel or unusual treatment or punishment if returned to their country or countries of nationality, or if they do not have a country of nationality, their country of former habitual residence.
Contact us to consult a licensed immigration consultant about your case.
STUDENT CLASS APPLICATIONS
Thousands of international students choose Canadian schools, colleges and universities for their education. The number of international students holding Canadian study permits, as of December 31st 2018, reached 572,415. ³ This number represents an overall growth of 75% over 2014. Moreover, a 2018 survey conducted by the Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE) revealed that the top 3 reasons international students, at post-secondary institutions in Canada, chose to study in Canada were:
The reputation of the education system in Canada
Canadian society is generally perceived as tolerant and non-discriminatory
Canada’s reputation as a safe country
In terms of tuition fees, Canadian universities, while offering world-class education, have the lowest fees compared to English-speaking destinations like the United States, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. ⁴ This gives international students another reason for choosing to study in Canada.
From an immigration standpoint, Canada offers international students an opportunity to transition to permanent residence. Eligible international students may apply for a post-graduation work permit allowing them to work temporarily after their graduation. The work experience they gain while working may help them qualify for permanent residence.
Contact us to consult a licensed immigration consultant about how studying in Canada may help you achieve your career goals.
WORKER CLASS APPLICATIONS
There are two programs through which employers can hire foreign workers; the Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP) and the International Mobility Program (IMP).
The TFWP allows employers to hire foreign nationals on a temporary basis to fill labour and skill shortages. Employers need to apply to the federal government for a Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA). The LMIA document verifies that there is a need for a temporary foreign worker because no Canadian citizen or permanent resident is available to do the job.
Workers, on the other hand, entering under the International Mobility Program (IMP) do so to advance Canada’s broad interests rather than fill temporary labour and skill shortages. They are, thus, exempt from the LMIA requirement, though a work permit is generally required. The IMP includes workers who are deemed to provide a social, cultural or economic benefit to Canada such as those working under reciprocal employment agreements, the spouses or common-law partners of higher-skilled workers, workers with research and studies related work permits, et al.
Contact us to consult a licensed immigration consultant about your needs regarding Canada’s temporary foreign worker programs.
VISITOR CLASS APPLICATIONS
Visitors are foreign nationals seeking to enter Canada for a specified period of time. Most travellers need a visa or an Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA). An eTA is an entry requirement for visa-exempt, non-U.S. foreign nationals travelling to Canada by air.
A visitor visa and an eTA, normally, allow the visitor to stay in Canada for up to 6 months at a time. In some cases, however, the officer may limit or extend the allowable time. A Parent and Grandparent Super Visa (Super Visa), on the other hand, allows parents and grandparents of Canadian citizens and permanent residents to stay in Canada for up to 2 years at a time.
Contact us to consult a licensed immigration consultant about entering Canada as a visitor.
When a foreign national who is outside Canada submits an application to come to Canada, the visa officer assesses the applicant’s eligibility as well as his/her admissibility. A finding of inadmissibility will likely let the visa officer refuse issuing the foreign national a visa. There are 11 grounds of inadmissibility ranging from the most serious to the less serious. Foreign nationals, for example, who pose a security threat to Canada, have a record of human or international rights violations or serious criminality or organized criminality are considered inadmissible on the most serious grounds. A visa applicant, on the other hand, who does not show proof of enough funds to cover his/her stay in Canada is inadmissible on one of the less serious grounds.
Border services officers at ports of entry, also, examine foreign nationals to determine if they are still admissible to Canada. Permanent residents will be allowed to enter Canada if the officer is satisfied that they have not lost their permanent resident status and are not inadmissible. Holders of temporary entry visas, furthermore, will be admitted to Canada as long as they have the proper authorization for their stay in Canada, and are not inadmissible.
After being admitted to Canada, neither temporary residents nor permanent residents have an absolute right to remain in Canada. If they break the law, they may be arrested and detained, and/or ordered to leave Canada pending an admissibility hearing. The Immigration Division (ID) of the Immigration and Refugee Board conducts the detention review, in the case of a detention, to determine if continued detention of the person concerned is necessary. The ID also conducts the admissibility hearing for a final determination regarding the admissibility of the person concerned. The detention review and admissibility hearing are usually two separate proceedings. However, in both cases the person concerned has the right to be represented by Counsel.
Contact us to consult a licensed immigration consultant about your case and representation at Immigration Division hearings.
Canada’s immigration legislation allows certain groups of people to appeal decisions made under the immigration program. The Immigration Appeal Division (IAD) of the Immigration and Refugee Board is the administrative tribunal that provides an independent review of those decisions. The matters that may be brought before the IAD are the following.
Refusal of a sponsorship application for members of the family class
Removal orders made against foreign nationals who hold permanent resident visas
Removal orders made against permanent residents and protected persons at an examination or admissibility hearing
Minister’s appeal of a decision made by a member of the Immigration Division, and
Appeals of overseas decisions on loss of permanent resident status
Contact us to consult a licensed immigration consultant about appealing a decision to the Immigration Appeal Division.
A person may become a Canadian citizen if he/she was born in Canada, if one of his parents, at the time he was born, was a Canadian citizen, or through the process of naturalization. Naturalization is the process through which eligible permanent residents receive a grant of citizenship.
Contact us to consult a licensed immigration consultant regarding citizenship matters.
¹, ² IRCC